开发者接口

这部分文档包含了Requests所有的接口。对于Requests依赖的外部库部分,我们介绍 一些比较重要的并提供规范文档的链接。

主要接口

Requests所有的功能都可以通过以下7个方法访问。 它们全部都会返回 Response 对象的一个实例。

requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)

Constructs and sends a Request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • method – method for the new Request object.
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • params – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
  • cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
  • files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘name’: file-like-objects (or {‘name’: (‘filename’, fileobj)}) for multipart encoding upload.
  • auth – (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
  • timeout – (optional) Float describing the timeout of the request.
  • allow_redirects – (optional) Boolean. Set to True if POST/PUT/DELETE redirect following is allowed.
  • proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
  • verify – (optional) if True, the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided.
  • stream – (optional) if False, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
  • cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
<Response [200]>
requests.head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.post(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.

较低级别的类

class requests.Request(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data={}, params={}, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None)

A user-created Request object.

Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.

Parameters:
  • method – HTTP method to use.
  • url – URL to send.
  • headers – dictionary of headers to send.
  • files – dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
  • data – the body to attach the request. If a dictionary is provided, form-encoding will take place.
  • params – dictionary of URL parameters to append to the URL.
  • auth – Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
  • cookies – dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
  • hooks – dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>
deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

prepare()

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

class requests.Response

The Response object, which contains a server’s response to an HTTP request.

apparent_encoding

The apparent encoding, provided by the lovely Charade library (Thanks, Ian!).

content

Content of the response, in bytes.

cookies = None

A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.

elapsed = None

The amount of time elapsed between sending the request and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta)

encoding = None

Encoding to decode with when accessing r.text.

headers = None

Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers. For example, headers['content-encoding'] will return the value of a 'Content-Encoding' response header.

history = None

A list of Response objects from the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.

iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)

Iterates over the response data. This avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item returned as decoding can take place.

iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None)

Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. This avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses.

json(**kwargs)

Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.

Parameters:**kwargs – Optional arguments that json.loads takes.

Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.

raise_for_status()

Raises stored HTTPError, if one occurred.

raw = None

File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage). Requires that ``stream=True` on the request.

status_code = None

Integer Code of responded HTTP Status.

text

Content of the response, in unicode.

if Response.encoding is None and chardet module is available, encoding will be guessed.

url = None

Final URL location of Response.

请求会话

class requests.Session

A Requests session.

Provides cookie persistience, connection-pooling, and configuration.

Basic Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
200
auth = None

Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to Request.

cert = None

SSL certificate default.

close()

Closes all adapters and as such the session

delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get_adapter(url)

Returns the appropriate connnection adapter for the given URL.

head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
headers = None

A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each Request sent from this Session.

hooks = None

Event-handling hooks.

max_redirects = None

Maximum number of redirects to follow.

mount(prefix, adapter)

Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.

options(url, **kwargs)

Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
params = None

Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each Request. The dictionary values may be lists for representing multivalued query parameters.

patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
post(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
proxies = None

Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy (e.g. {‘http’: ‘foo.bar:3128’}) to be used on each Request.

put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses.

send(request, **kwargs)

Send a given PreparedRequest.

stream = None

Stream response content default.

trust_env = None

Should we trust the environment?

verify = None

SSL Verification default.

异常

exception requests.RequestException

There was an ambiguous exception that occurred while handling your request.

exception requests.ConnectionError

A Connection error occurred.

exception requests.HTTPError(*args, **kwargs)

An HTTP error occurred.

exception requests.URLRequired

A valid URL is required to make a request.

exception requests.TooManyRedirects

Too many redirects.

状态码查询

requests.codes()

Dictionary lookup object.

>>> requests.codes['temporary_redirect']
307

>>> requests.codes.teapot
418

>>> requests.codes['\o/']
200

Cookies

编码

class requests.Response

The Response object, which contains a server’s response to an HTTP request.

apparent_encoding

The apparent encoding, provided by the lovely Charade library (Thanks, Ian!).

content

Content of the response, in bytes.

cookies = None

A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.

elapsed = None

The amount of time elapsed between sending the request and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta)

encoding = None

Encoding to decode with when accessing r.text.

headers = None

Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers. For example, headers['content-encoding'] will return the value of a 'Content-Encoding' response header.

history = None

A list of Response objects from the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.

iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)

Iterates over the response data. This avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item returned as decoding can take place.

iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None)

Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. This avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses.

json(**kwargs)

Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.

Parameters:**kwargs – Optional arguments that json.loads takes.
links

Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.

raise_for_status()

Raises stored HTTPError, if one occurred.

raw = None

File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage). Requires that ``stream=True` on the request.

status_code = None

Integer Code of responded HTTP Status.

text

Content of the response, in unicode.

if Response.encoding is None and chardet module is available, encoding will be guessed.

url = None

Final URL location of Response.

class requests.Request(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data={}, params={}, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None)

A user-created Request object.

Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.

Parameters:
  • method – HTTP method to use.
  • url – URL to send.
  • headers – dictionary of headers to send.
  • files – dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
  • data – the body to attach the request. If a dictionary is provided, form-encoding will take place.
  • params – dictionary of URL parameters to append to the URL.
  • auth – Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
  • cookies – dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
  • hooks – dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>
deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

prepare()

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

class requests.PreparedRequest

The fully mutable PreparedRequest object, containing the exact bytes that will be sent to the server.

Generated from either a Request object or manually.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> r = req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>

>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.send(r)
<Response [200]>
body = None

request body to send to the server.

deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

headers = None

dictionary of HTTP headers.

hooks = None

dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

method = None

HTTP verb to send to the server.

path_url

Build the path URL to use.

prepare_auth(auth)

Prepares the given HTTP auth data.

prepare_body(data, files)

Prepares the given HTTP body data.

prepare_cookies(cookies)

Prepares the given HTTP cookie data.

prepare_headers(headers)

Prepares the given HTTP headers.

prepare_hooks(hooks)

Prepares the given hooks.

prepare_method(method)

Prepares the given HTTP method.

prepare_url(url, params)

Prepares the given HTTP URL.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

url = None

HTTP URL to send the request to.

class requests.Session

A Requests session.

Provides cookie persistience, connection-pooling, and configuration.

Basic Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
200
auth = None

Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to Request.

cert = None

SSL certificate default.

close()

Closes all adapters and as such the session

delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get_adapter(url)

Returns the appropriate connnection adapter for the given URL.

head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
headers = None

A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each Request sent from this Session.

hooks = None

Event-handling hooks.

max_redirects = None

Maximum number of redirects to follow.

mount(prefix, adapter)

Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.

options(url, **kwargs)

Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
params = None

Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each Request. The dictionary values may be lists for representing multivalued query parameters.

patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
post(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
proxies = None

Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy (e.g. {‘http’: ‘foo.bar:3128’}) to be used on each Request.

put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses.

send(request, **kwargs)

Send a given PreparedRequest.

stream = None

Stream response content default.

trust_env = None

Should we trust the environment?

verify = None

SSL Verification default.

迁移到 1.x

本节详细介绍0.X和1.x的主要区别,减少升级带来的一些不便。

API 改变

  • Response.json 现在是可调用的并且不再是响应体的属性。

    import requests
    r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json')
    r.json()   # This *call* raises an exception if JSON decoding fails
    
  • Session API 也发生了变化. Sessions 对象不在需要参数了。 Session is also now capitalized,但为了向后兼容,它仍然能被小写的 session 实例化。

    s = requests.Session()    # formerly, session took parameters
    s.auth = auth
    s.headers.update(headers)
    r = s.get('http://httpbin.org/headers')
    
  • 除了’response’,所有的请求挂钩已被移除。

  • 认证助手已经被分解成单独的模块了. 参见 requests-oauthlib and requests-kerberos.

  • 流请求的参数已从 prefetch 改变到 stream ,并且逻辑也被颠倒。除此之外, stream 现在对于原始响应读取也是必需的。

    # in 0.x, passing prefetch=False would accomplish the same thing
    r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json', stream=True)
    r.raw.read(10)
    
  • requests 方法的``config`` 参数已全部删除。 现在配置这些选项都在 Session ,比如 keep-alive 和最大数目的重定向。 详细程度选项应当由配置日志来处理。

    # Verbosity should now be configured with logging
    my_config = {'verbose': sys.stderr}
    requests.get('http://httpbin.org/headers', config=my_config)  # bad!
    

许可

有一个关键的与 API 无关的区别是开放许可从 ISC 许可 变更到 Apache 2.0 许可. Apache 2.0 license 确保了对于requests的贡献也被涵盖在 Apache 2.0 许可内.